Basics of ropemaking

Primary products used for the manufacture of ropes

Parallel yarns

Filaments made of several single filaments are called parallel yarns. Filament is the international description for textile fibres with very long “continuous” lengths during the man-made fibre manufacturing process.

Yarn

Linear textile structure made of several fibres or filaments twisted together (e.g. yarn made of several parallel yarns).

Twine

Linear textile structure made of at least two yarns twisted together.

Strand

The subrope-product attained when threads (yarns or twines) are twisted together, before these are processed into a rope.

 

Differentiation of rope constructions

Laid ropes

Ropes that are formed by twisting two or more parts around one another in the opposite twist direction of the individual components to form a helix around the axis.

  • 3-strand (Form A)
    3-strand rope, where the strands are laid around the centre axis in a helical fashion.

  • 4-strand (Form B)
    4-strand rope with or without a rope centre core, where the strands are laid around the centre axis in a helical fashion.

  • Cable lay (Form C) 
    Rope made of several ropes (which in this instance are called subropes) that are twisted together opposite to their lay direction.

Braided ropes

Torque-free ropes that are not manufactured by twisting – as is the case with laid ropes – but rather through weaving, crossing or intertwining the strands.

  • Round braid (Form E) 
    Tubular in form, this type of rope is manufactured with or without a core through the weaving of strands.

  • Hollow braid (Form F) 
    Tubular in form, this type of rope is manufactured through the intertwining of strands. The hollow braid is fully comprised of load-bearing fibres.

  • Solid braid (Form H) 
    A tubular braid that is especially round due to its construction. It is manufactured through the unidirectional interweaving of strands.

  • Kernmantle braid (Form K) 
    A braid comprising a core that primarily serves as the loadbearing element and a surrounding cover that protects the core against abrasion and weathering.

  • Square-plait (Form L) 
    A braid that is manufactured through the pair-wise braiding of eight strands. It features a square cross-section.

  • 12-strand braided (Form T) 
    A braid that is manufactured through the braiding of 12 strands. It features a round cross-section.